Industrial Engineering and Systems Management Department

Reverse Engineering for Air Conditioning Fan

It is required to create a solid model on computer of a fan that had been designed precisely since the slope and the thickness of the fan blade is changing across the blade.
Once we can get a fully detailed solid model, we can use additive manufacturing techniques to get a fan that is very similar to the original one.

3D Scanning

    Device: ZScanner 800
    Because the fan axisymmetric, it is required to scan one blade only. The positioning targets are fixed on the both sides of the fan blade.
    After locating the positioning targets by the laser scanner, the scanning process begins.
    It takes about 20 minutes to scan the fan blade with high resolution. The scanned data are saved as a mesh file.

Converting the mesh to Solid

    Software: RAPIDFORM
    Once we have the mesh file, we can generate the solid model.
    The less sophisticated parts such as the hub can be generated directly from the mesh without generating surfaces .
    For the sophisticated parts such as the blade, The process of converting the mesh data to solid goes on two steps.
    The first step is generating the surfaces from the mesh data. The surface should be generated precisely.
    The second step is generating the solid model by “surface loft” command which fills up the volume between the surfaces by solid.

Comparing the Solid to the scannad data

    Software: RAPIDFORM
    Once we have the solid model of the blade, we compare it to the scanned data to check how much the created model deviates from the original body.

Creating the full solid model

    Software: RAPIDFORM/SOLIDWORKS
    Since we have the full volumetric characteristic for a single blade, we can generate the other blades since the fan is axisymmetric.

AM Fabrication

    Device: 3D Printer
    After generating solid part, save it as .STL File
    Open .Stl part file with Magics for Ultra software and locate the part at the appropriate orientation [X, Y, Z] at machine platform.
    Generate supports needed to build the prototype correctly.
    Load part and its generated supports to Perfactory software and create part job files.
    *Job Files contain all data for building part [PNG Images, machine selection, material selection, voxel depth, build envelope size, exposure times]
    Material Consumption and estimated building time is calculated.

Reverse Engineering for Twin Tub Main Body

It is required to Reverse Engineering (RE) of the twin tub main body.
The design will be done using RE for the product and then using the model to generate the die.

3D Scanning

    Device: ZScanner 800
    After locating the positioning targets by the laser scanner, the scanning process begins.
    The scanned data are saved as a mesh file.

Converting the mesh to Solid


    Software: RAPIDFORM
    Rapidform (Reverse Engineering)
    CATIA ( Reverse Engineering)
    SolidWorks (Editing and generating Moulds)
    SolidWorks Flow Simulation
    SolidWorks Plastics
    Once we have the mesh file, we can generate the solid model.

Mould Design – The Cavity and The Core


    Software : SolidWorks Mold Tools
    SolidWorks (Editing and generating Moulds)
    SolidWorks Flow Simulation
    SolidWorks Plastics

Washing Machine Line Balancing Project

EL-ARABY members are seeking to improve the efficiency of the production line and increase the line’s throughput.
E-JUST team developed a simulation model for the line in order to examine the different possibilities to achieve this objective using Arena software package.

Decreasing Processing Times

    The production line throughput was examined after decreasing the processing times for each bottleneck operations by 5%, 10%, 15% & 20%.
    The two Cleaning Operations on the packing Line were Splitted.
    The new line balance resulted in an immediate
    improvement of throughput by 10-20%.

From Conveyor Belts to Cellular Production

    belt conveyor has been replaced by workplace innovations that enable the accomplishment of both high labor efficiency and enhanced flexibility.
    These innovations embrace the assignment of more challenging and meaningful functions to workforce:

      1- Greater autonomy,
      2- multi-tasking,
      3- learning,
      4- involvement in process improvement
      5- workstation design for high-performance, and
      6- reliance low-cost automation (LCA) resources.

Results

    Detect bottleneck operations and study alternatives to break them.
    EJUST team members proposed switching to cellular manufacturing so as to achieve the highest throughput.
    With initial implementation of the recommendations, the actual throughput increased 20%.
    The best line balancing results were obtained when completely switching to cellular manufacturing.
    For the full cellular main line scenario, a maximum utilization of 87% was achieved compared to 81% in the current situation .

Ceiling Fan Assembly Line Balancing Project

It is required to perform a time study for the production operations on the line.
Study the current line balance and suggest how to improve it if needed.
Suggest a solution to overcome the fact that inventory is held for too much time to balance seasonal demand.

Collecting Data

    Due to the seasonality in demand, the company over produces
    During winter season to accommodate for increased demand during summer season.
    This has a significant inventory holding cost.


Data Analysis & Model Building

After building and validating the simulation model, the line is observed and proved statistically to be unbalanced.

EJUST team members studied the effect of the skill level and examined the operations that are sensitive to changing the worker’s skill by performing statistical t-test analysis, and detected the operations that are highly affected by the worker skill level.

Results

EJUST members proposed different scenarios for balancing and improving the line’s performance, which has proven to be successful in terms of increasing production rate, decreasing space utilized or decreasing the total number of workers.
One balancing scenario is theoretically proven to increase the total production by 10%.
EJUST team proposed possible redistribution of operations along the assembly line so that the total number of workers decrease while maintaining the production rate and decreasing space utilization roughly by 20%.

Reverse Engineering of Motor Fan

It is required to create a solid model on computer of a fan that had been designed precisely since the slope and the thickness of the fan blade is changing across the blade.
Once we can get a fully detailed solid model, we can use additive manufacturing techniques to get a fan that is very similar to the original one.


3D Scanning

    Device: ZScanner 800
    Because the fan axisymmetric, it is required to scan one blade only. The positioning targets are fixed on the both sides of the fan blade.
    After locating the positioning targets by the laser scanner, the scanning process begins.
    It takes about 20 minutes to scan the fan blade with high resolution. The scanned data are saved as a mesh file.

Converting the mesh to Solid

    Software: Geomagic
    Once we have the mesh file, we can generate the solid model.
    The less sophisticated parts such as the hub can be generated directly from the mesh without generating surfaces .
    For the sophisticated parts such as the blade, The process of converting the mesh data to solid goes on two steps.
    The first step is generating the surfaces from the mesh data. The surface should be generated precisely.
    The second step is generating the solid model by “surface loft” command which fills up the volume between the surfaces by solid.

Comparing the Solid to the scannad data

    Software: SOLIDWORKS
    Once we have the solid model of the blade, we compare it to the scanned data to check how much the created model deviates from the original body.


Creating the full solid model

    Software: SOLIDWORKS
    Since we have the full volumetric characteristic for a single blade, we can generate the other blades since the fan is axisymmetric.


AM Fabrication

    Device: 3D Printer
    After generating solid part, save it as .STL File
    Open .Stl part file with Magics for Ultra software and locate the part at the appropriate orientation [X, Y, Z] at machine platform.
    Generate supports needed to build the prototype correctly.
    Load part and its generated supports to Perfactory software and create part job files.
    *Job Files contain all data for building part [PNG Images, machine selection, material selection, voxel depth, build envelope size, exposure times]
    Material Consumption and estimated building time is calculated.

Measurement Process for Air Compressor Components

It is required to create a solid model on computer of a Compressor Components
Once we can get a fully detailed solid model, we can use additive manufacturing techniques to get a part that is very similar to the original one.

3D Scanning

    Mechanical Measurement Process is the first step for determining the part dimensions using mechanical measuring tools such as (Vernier Caliber, Micrometer … etc.
    Device: ZScanner 800
    For curvature features, the best method for modeling such elements is to use the 3D-Scanner to form a cloud of points for the component.

Converting the mesh to Solid

    Software: Geomagic
    After forming the points cloud, it is converted into solid model using software like CATIA or Geomagic.

Comparing the Solid to the scannad data

    Device: CMM
    Measure all pssible dimensions on Coordinate measuring machine to compare it with other readings.
    After collecting data from the CMM, we need to calculate the average value for each dimension

Creating the full solid model

    Software: SOLIDWORKS
    Since we have the full volumetric characteristic for a single blade, we can generate the other blades since the fan is axisymmetric.
    we can model the part using the data collected from mechanical measurement, CMM, and the 3D-Scanning process through the surface modelling software (Z-Scan).
    Solidworks is a perfect CAD software that could be used for modelling and also for analysis if needed.
    The part was finally modeled and rendered using Solidworks to be used in manufacturing and analysis processes as shown in the following figure.

Measurement Process for Cast Interimplant distances

It is required to measure distances between 3 Interimplant in x, y, and z axis

Measuring Process

    Device: CMM
    The implant abutments are donated. The center of abutment 1 is considered as the reference point for all measurements
    The cast was measured using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM)
    Three measurements were recorded for interimplant distances in x, y, and z axis.
    the mean values were calculated

Creating the full solid model

    Software: SOLIDWORKS
    Since we have distances in x,y,z axis , we can draw solid model view our case .

Measurement Process for Plastic Bottles Concavity and Convexity

It is required to determine the concavity/convexity of plastic bottles

Measuring Process

    Device: CMM
    To reach the bottle middle line, two surfaces are determined using the bottle two sides (right and left) and the middle plane will then contain the desired line.
    Three points are to be measured along this line; (36.6, 81.1, and 125.6) mm from the base.